: National Endowment for the Arts (NEA), Survey of Public Participation in the Arts (SPPA; 1992, 2002, 2008, 2012). Estimates for 1992, 2002, and 2008 generated using the Cultural Policy and the Arts Data Archive’s online data analysis system
. (The SPPA data have since migrated to the National Archive of Data on Arts and Culture
.) Estimate for 2012 taken from the NEA’s Office of Research and Analysis, How a Nation Engages with Art: Highlights from the 2012 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts
(Washington, DC: National Endowment for the Arts, 2013), 27.